Report References

Links: References, sources and footnotes in The Show Must Go On report

1 Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) is a measure used to compare the global warming potential of different types of greenhouse gases (e.g. methane and nitrous oxide), using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a reference.

2 Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (UK Music: 2013), identifies 279 annual music festivals taking place in the UK, and reports an attendance of 2.79 million in 2012 — lower than usual due to the Olympics. Email correspondence with UK Music updated the attendance figure for 2013 to 3.17 million. Some reports suggest there are as many as 500 or even 800 festivals, but we have decided to adopt official figures for this report.

3 IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – Working Group II Contribution to Assessment Report 5 (IPCC: 2014). Online at

4 IPCC, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis – Working Group I Contribution to Assessment Report 5, (IPCC: 2013). Online at

5 Met Office, Online at and

6 NASA, ‘NASA, NOAA Find 2014 Warmest Year in Modern Record’ (NASA: 16 Jan 2015). Online at

7 UK Met Office, ‘2014 confirmed as UK’s warmest year on record’ (UK Met Office: 15 Jan 2015). Online at

8 IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report – Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to Assessment Report 5 (IPCC: 2014). Online at

9 Adam Vaughan, ‘Global carbon dioxide levels break 400 ppm milestone’ (The Guardian: 6 May 2015). Online at

10 Creative Industry Green Tool Benchmarks: Festivals, 3rd edition (Julie’s Bicycle: 2014). Online at

11 Note: This figure was derived using the Julie’s Bicycle Benchmark of 2.3 kg CO2e per audience day, annual festival attendance of 3.17 million – from Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (UK Music: 2013) – and an average festival length of 2.7 days (Julie Bicycle). For the purposes of this report, we have chosen to use the attendance figure for 2013 as supplied by UK Music in email correspondence and used in their report, Measuring Music (UK Music: 2014). Their methodology, based on ticket sale figures, is explained in more detail in Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (UK Music, 2013), which reported an attendance of 2.79 million in 2012 – lower than usual due to the Olympics. It should be noted that their event definition slightly differs from what we would consider the key focus for this report (multi-day music festivals featuring camping) in that they have included some non-camping events such as the Proms, but excluded some camping outdoor events such as WOMAD. However, 3.17 million is the best available and most reliable figure and is also endorsed by the industry, and any attendance estimates will always contain some margin of error, so we feel confident in using it for the basis of this report.

12 This figure was derived using Julie’s Bicycle audience travel default averages for greenfield festivals (average return distances in parentheses) of 70% car (225 miles), 15% coach (300 miles), 13% train (225 miles), and 1% domestic flights (1800 miles). We also consulted surveys undertaken by Virtual Festival and A Greener Festival, which suggested a similar split of transport modes.

13 A Greener Festival, What Fans Want: Green Events – And Their Fave Band! (A Greener Festival/Buckinghamshire New University: 2013). Online at

14 This percentage assumes a total of 279 known UK summer music festivals. In 2014, there were 13 UK festivals currently certified through Julie’s Bicycle Industry Green Certification, 9 UK festivals have received an A Greener Festival Award, and 10 festivals engaged with the Festival Energy Revolution initiative.

15 ILMC, European Festival Report 2013 (IQ Magazine, Issue 50: Nov 2013). Online at

16 The Industry Green Manifesto Survey (Kambe Events in association with the AIF and AFO: May 2015). Available online at

17 Based on 279 UK summer music festivals.

18 The nine A Greener Festival awarded festivals in 2014 were: Cambridge Folk Festival, Shambala Festival, Glastonbury Festival, Wood Festival, End of the Road, Greenbelt, Nozstock: the Hidden Valley, T in The Park and also BBC Radio 2 and Proms in Hyde Park. The five Creative IG Tool certified events were: Latitude Festival, Reading Festival, Leeds Festival, Shambala Festival and BBC Radio 2 in Hyde Park.
19 The six UK festivals directly represented on the steering group are Bestival, Camp Bestival, Latitude, Reading, Leeds, and Shambala. Details online at

20 The full list is available online at

21 Isle of Wight Festival, Kendal Calling, Rewind Festival, Nozstock: The Hidden Valley, Reading Festival, Leeds Festival, Latitude Festival, V Festival, Truck Festival, Y Not Festival.

22 Bestival, Camp Bestival, Boomtown, Kendal Calling, Starry Skies, Love Saves the Day, The Secret Garden Party, Standon Calling, Wilderness, and Shambala. See website for more information:

23 This figure has been extrapolated using the Julie’s Bicycle Benchmark of 0.58L per audience day, annual festival attendance of 3.17 million, and an average festival length of 2.7days, from Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (UK Music, 2013).

24 IPCC, Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report–Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to Assessment Report 5 (IPCC: 2014). Online at

25 Joel Baker (MSc Climate Change and Policy), What are the barriers to operationalizing and expanding temporary renewable energy capacity at UK music festivals? (Sussex University: 2011). Please note that this study used a more generous definition of music events, counting 500 UK festivals (rather than the 279 counted b UK Music in Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (2013). This discrepancy is likely due to differing definitions of ‘festival’ e.g. including local authority events and fairs.

26 Source: Reported growth by Midas UK Ltd and Firefly Clean Energy in January 2015

27 65% of respondents in the Industry Green Manifesto Survey (Kambe Events et al: May 2015) stated that they were tackling energy use as one of their top three priorities. See survey report online at:

28 Powerful Thinking, Power Behind Festivals: A Guide to Sustainable Power at Outdoor Events, (Powerful Thinking: 2012) p. 3. Online at

29 Ben Marchini, Festivals and Sustainability: Reducing energy related greenhouse gas emissions at music festivals (Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University: 2013).

30 Source: Case Study – Galstonbury Festival Sustainability, presentation by Rob Scully at Green Events & Innovations Conference at the ILMC, March 2015 (hosted by A Greener Festival and Bucks New University). Available as video online at

31 Powerful Thinking, Power Behind Festivals: A Guide to Sustainable Power at Outdoor Events, (Powerful Thinking: 2012). Online at

32 Source: Presentation at ADE Green Conference, 2014. Chris Johnson, Shambala Festival.

33 Details online at

34 Reducing Electricity related Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Music Festivals (Ben Marchini, Paul Fleming and Christopher Maughan, De Montfort University, Leicester: 2012). Report can be found online at

35 Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP), Recycle Now. Online at

36 A.A. Siesse, Hazardous and Industrial Waste Proceedings, 27th Mid-Atlantic Conference, ed. A.K. Sengupta, (Technomic, Pennsylvania, USA: 1995) p.100-08.

37 Note: In 2013, only 16% of the UK’s 47 municipal waste incinerators had the capability to directly recover heat for use in hot water or for heating buildings. Incinerators are often located away from properties that may benefit from surplus heat, due to their reputation for polluting the air.

38 There are only two municipal waste incinerators in the UK which meet the efficiency threshold required to classify them as ‘recovery’ operations meaning that the remaining 45 facilities are classified as having the same environmental impact as landfill. Source online at

39 This figure is calculated using the Julie’s Bicycle Benchmark of 2.8 kg of waste per audience day, and annual festival attendance of 3.17 million/average festival length of 2.7 days from UK Music’s Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (2013).

40 WasteDataFlow statistics. Online at

41 Source: Ed Cook, Resource Futures. Based on reported information from outdoor music festivals serviced by Greenbox Events and previously Network Recycling UK from 2005-2015

42 AIF Audience Survey (AIF: 2014). Currently only viewable by members.

43 Festival Industry Green Manifesto Survey (Kambe Events et al: May 2015). Available online at

44 Note: The tent shape also means that bins can’t be used as tables, meaning that waste doesn’t build up on the top, obscure the signage or look unsightly.

45 Although event waste is classified as commercial, municipal targets offer us a useful benchmark for what is considered feasible.

46 Source: Clive Philips, Director of Greenbox Ltd, states that they estimate an average of 65% of waste is recyclable at the festival events that they service, based on waste surveys conducted.

47 Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), 2013 UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Provisional Figures and 2012 UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Final Figures by Fuel Type and End-User (DECC: March 2014).

48 First Step: UK Music Industry Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007 (Julie’s Bicycle: 2008). Online at

49 Source: Julies Bicycle benchmarks, 2014

50 Julie’s Bicycle have researched the carbon impact of UK bands touring in Moving Arts: Managing the Impacts of Our Touring. Volume 1: Bands (2010). Because of the difficulty in apportioning the impacts of a whole tour to single shows, it makes more sense to examine artist touring as a separate collective area of impact – however data remains patchy. We recommend more artists, agents and managers use Julie’s Bicycles Creative IG Tool for Touring to begin quantifying the impacts of their tours to contribute to a more complete understanding of where the environmental impacts across the live music industry lie. Online at

51 As there are no official conversion factors for campervans we have used the conversion factor for diesel vans up to 3.5 t. All conversion factors have been issued by DEFRA, except the conversion factor for coaches, which is from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory.

52 AIF Six Year Report (2014), Dr. Emma Webster, Live Music Exchange (available to members only)

53 Julie’s Bicycle Practical Guide: Water Management at Outdoor Events (Julie’s Bicycle: 2014). Online at

54 A. L. Lusher, M. McHugh and R. C. Thompson, Occurrence of micro-plastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel (Marine Pollution Bulletin: 2013), Volume 67, Issues 1-2, p 94-99.

55 This figure is calculated using the Julie’s Bicycle Benchmark of 12.5 L per audience day and assumes 279 festivals with an average festival length of 2.7 days, with a total audience of 3.17 million. Data from UK Music’s Music Tourism: Wish You Were Here (2013).

56 Julie’s Bicycle Practical Guide: Managing water at outdoor events (2015) available online at:, and AIF Water Guide for Festivals (2014), members only.

57 Bring a Bottle campaign by Kambe Events & Dion Star. Details online at

58 Making Waves: Guide to Plastic Free Festivals (RAW Foundation & Kambe Events: 2014). Making Waves: Festivalgoers Plastic Free Guide (RAW Foundation & Glastonbury Festival: 2014). Online at

59 R. Goodland & J. Anhang, Livestock and Climate Change: What if the Key Actors in Climate Change Were Pigs, Chickens and Cows?, Worldwatch, Nov/Dec 2009. (Worldwatch Institute: Washington DC, USA) pp. 10-19.

60 Data online at and

61 Festival Industry Green Manifesto Survey (Kambe Events et al: May 2015). Available online at

62 67% of 11,000 respondents stated that they thought environmental friendliness was “important” in the survey published in the 2012 UK Festival Market Report, produced by UK Festival Awards in association with CGA strategy.

63 Audience attitudes on the environmental Impact of Events, T. Moore, A Greener Festival (2013). The survey had 2300 respondents from European Festivals 40 of which were UK festivals. Available online at

64 Dr. Emma Baxter, AIF Six Year Report: ‘The general atmosphere and overall vibe, character and quality of the event’, was the most important motivation for attending a festival (53.2% average). In the UK Festival Awards Market Research Report (CGA Consulting: 2013), a survey of 3,380 British festivalgoers, 53% said music was their greatest motivation to attend. Available to members only.

65 Audience Attitudes on the Environmental Impact of Events, (T. Moore, 2012). Available online at

66 e.g. Rob Parsons, ‘Leeds city centre awash with Festival mud and wellies’, (The Yorkshire Evening Post: 26 Aug 2013). Online at

67 Industry Green Manifesto Survey (Kambe Events et al: 2015). Available online at

68 Sustaining Creativity: National survey of attitudes and actions on environmental sustainability in the creative industries (Burns Owens Partnership & Julie’s Bicycle: December 2014). Online at